Morbo di Parkinson
Effects of cannabidiol in the treatment of patients with Parkinson’s disease: an exploratory double-blind trial.
Parkinson’s disease (PD) has a progressive course and is characterized by the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons. Although no neuroprotective treatments for PD have been found to date, the endocannabinoid system has emerged as a promising target.
From a sample of 119 patients consecutively evaluated in a specialized movement disorders outpatient clinic, we selected 21 PD patients without dementia or comorbid psychiatric conditions. Participants were assigned to three groups of seven subjects each who were treated with placebo, cannabidiol (CBD) 75 mg/day or CBD 300 mg/day. One week before the trial and in the last week of treatment participants were assessed in respect to (i) motor and general symptoms score (UPDRS); (ii) well-being and quality of life (PDQ-39); and (iii) possible neuroprotective effects (BDNF and H(1)-MRS).
Prospects for cannabinoid therapies in basal ganglia disorders.
Cannabinoids are promising medicines to slow down disease progression in neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinson’s disease (PD) and Huntington’s disease (HD), two of the most important disorders affecting the basal ganglia. Two pharmacological profiles have been proposed for cannabinoids being effective in these disorders. On the one hand, cannabinoids like Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol or cannabidiol protect nigral or striatal neurons in experimental models of both disorders, in which oxidative injury is a prominent cytotoxic mechanism. This effect could be exerted, at least in part, through mechanisms independent of CB(1) and CB(2) receptors and involving the control of endogenous antioxidant defences.
Evaluation of the neuroprotective effect of cannabinoids in a rat model of Parkinson’s disease: importance of antioxidant and cannabinoid receptor-independent properties
We have recently demonstrated that two plant-derived cannabinoids, Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol (CBD), are neuroprotective in an animal model of Parkinson’s disease (PD), presumably because of their antioxidant properties. To further explore this issue, we examined the neuroprotective effects of a series of cannabinoid-based compounds, with more selectivity for different elements of the cannabinoid signalling system, in rats with unilateral lesions of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons caused by local application of 6-hydroxydopamine.
Cannabinoids provide neuroprotection against 6-hydroxydopamine toxicity in vivo and in vitro: relevance to Parkinson’s disease.
Cannabinoids have been reported to provide neuroprotection in acute and chronic neurodegeneration. In this study, we examined whether they are also effective against the toxicity caused by 6-hydroxydopamine, both in vivo and in vitro, which may be relevant to Parkinson’s disease (PD). First, we evaluated whether the administration of cannabinoids in vivo reduces the neurodegeneration produced by a unilateral injection of 6-hydroxydopamine into the medial forebrain bundle. As expected, 2 weeks after the application of this toxin, a significant depletion of dopamine contents and a reduction of tyrosine hydroxylase activity in the lesioned striatum were noted, and were accompanied by a reduction in tyrosine hydroxylase-mRNA levels in the substantia nigra.
Cannabidiol for the treatment of psychosis in Parkinson’s disease.
The management of psychosis in Parkinson’s disease (PD) has been considered a great challenge for clinicians and there is a need for new pharmacological intervention. Previously an antipsychotic and neuroprotective effect of Cannabidiol (CBD) has been suggested. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to directly evaluate for the first time, the efficacy, tolerability and safety of CBD on PD patients with psychotic symptoms.
Symptom-relieving and neuroprotective effects of the phytocannabinoid Δ⁹-THCV in animal models of Parkinson’s disease.
Previous findings have indicated that a cannabinoid, such as Δ(9)-THCV, which has antioxidant properties and the ability to activate CB(2) receptors but to block CB(1) , might be a promising therapy for alleviating symptoms and delaying neurodegeneration in Parkinson’s disease (PD).
The ability of Δ(9)-THCV to reduce motor inhibition and provide neuroprotection was investigated in rats lesioned with 6-hydroxydopamine and in mice lesioned with lipopolysaccharide (LPS).
Therapeutic potential of cannabinoids in CNS disease.
The major psychoactive constituent of Cannabis sativa, delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta(9)-THC), and endogenous cannabinoid ligands, such as anandamide, signal through G-protein-coupled cannabinoid receptors localised to regions of the brain associated with important neurological processes. Signalling is mostly inhibitory and suggests a role for cannabinoids as therapeutic agents in CNS disease where inhibition of neurotransmitter release would be beneficial. Anecdotal evidence suggests that patients with disorders such as multiple sclerosis smoke cannabis to relieve disease-related symptoms.
Cannabidiol can improve complex sleep-related behaviours associated with rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder in Parkinson’s disease patients: a case series.
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE:
Cannabidiol (CBD) is the main non-psychotropic component of the Cannabis sativa plant. REM sleep behaviour disorder (RBD) is a parasomnia characterized by the loss of muscle atonia during REM sleep associated with nightmares and active behaviour during dreaming. We have described the effects of CBD in RBD symptoms in patients with Parkinson’s disease.
Four patients treated with CBD had prompt and substantial reduction in the frequency of RBD-related events without side effects.
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