Cannabidiol as a Treatment for Acne?
Cannabidiol exerts sebostatic and antiinflammatory effects on human sebocytes.
The endocannabinoid system (ECS) regulates multiple physiological processes, including cutaneous cell growth and differentiation. Here, we explored the effects of the major nonpsychotropic phytocannabinoid of Cannabis sativa, (-)-cannabidiol (CBD), on human sebaceous gland function and determined that CBD behaves as a highly effective sebostatic agent. Administration of CBD to cultured human sebocytes and human skin organ culture inhibited the lipogenic actions of various compounds, including arachidonic acid and a combination of linoleic acid and testosterone, and suppressed sebocyte proliferation via the activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid-4 (TRPV4) ion channels.
The endocannabinoid system of the skin in health and disease: novel perspectives and therapeutic opportunities
The newly discovered endocannabinoid system (ECS; comprising the endogenous lipid mediators endocannabinoids present in virtually all tissues, their G-protein-coupled cannabinoid receptors, biosynthetic pathways and metabolizing enzymes) has been implicated in multiple regulatory functions both in health and disease
Endocannabinoids enhance lipid synthesis and apoptosis of human sebocytes via cannabinoid receptor-2-mediated signaling
We had previously shown that both locally produced endocannabinoids and exocannabinoids, via cannabinoid receptor-1 (CB1), are powerful inhibitors of human hair growth. To further investigate the role of the cannabinoid system in pilosebaceous unit biology, we have explored in the current study whether and how endocannabinoids have an impact on human sebaceous gland biology, using human SZ95 sebocytes as cell culture model.
Endocannabinoid signaling and epidermal differentiation
Endocannabinoids represent a class of endogenous lipid mediators, that are involved in various biological processes, both centrally and peripherally. The prototype member of this group of compounds, anandamide, regulates cell growth, differentiation and death; this holds true also in the skin, that is the largest organ of the body constantly exposed to physical, chemical, bacterial and fungal challenges.
Cannabinoids inhibit human keratinocyte proliferation through a non-CB1/CB2 mechanism and have a potential therapeutic value in the treatment of psoriasis.
Cannabinoids from cannabis (Cannabis sativa) are anti-inflammatory and have inhibitory effects on the proliferation of a number of tumorigenic cell lines, some of which are mediated via cannabinoid receptors. Cannabinoid (CB) receptors are present in human skin and anandamide, an endogenous CB receptor ligand, inhibits epidermal keratinocyte differentiation. Psoriasis is an inflammatory disease also characterised in part by epidermal keratinocyte hyper-proliferation.
We investigated the plant cannabinoids Delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol, cannabinol and cannabigerol for their ability to inhibit the proliferation of a hyper-proliferating human keratinocyte cell line and for any involvement of cannabinoid receptors.
Epigenetic control of skin differentiation genes by phytocannabinoids
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:
Endocannabinoid signalling has been shown to have a role in the control of epidermal physiology, whereby anandamide is able to regulate the expression of skin differentiation genes through DNA methylation. Here, we investigated the possible epigenetic regulation of these genes by several phytocannabinoids, plant-derived cannabinoids that have the potential to be novel therapeutics for various human diseases.
A novel control of human keratin expression: cannabinoid receptor 1-mediated signaling down-regulates the expression of keratins K6 and K16 in human keratinocytes in vitro and in situ.
Cannabinoid receptors (CB) are expressed throughout human skin epithelium. CB1 activation inhibits human hair growth and decreases proliferation of epidermal keratinocytes. Since psoriasis is a chronic hyperproliferative, inflammatory skin disease, it is conceivable that the therapeutic modulation of CB signaling, which can inhibit both proliferation and inflammation, could win a place in future psoriasis management.
Endocannabinoids modulate human epidermal keratinocyte proliferation and survival via the sequential engagement of cannabinoid receptor-1 and transient receptor potential vanilloid-1.
We have recently shown that lipid mediators of the emerging endocannabinoid system (ECS) are key players of growth control of the human pilosebaceous unit. In this study, we asked whether the prototypic endocannabinoid anandamide (N-arachidonoylethanolamine, AEA) has a role in growth and survival of epidermal keratinocytes (KCs). Using human cultured KCs and skin organ-culture models, and by employing combined pharmacological and molecular approaches, we provide early evidence that AEA markedly suppresses KC proliferation and induces cell death, both in vitro and in situ.
Cannabinoid 1 receptors in keratinocytes modulate proinflammatory chemokine secretion and attenuate contact allergic inflammation.
Epidermal keratinocytes (KCs) and cannabinoid (CB) receptors both participate in the regulation of inflammatory responses in a mouse model for allergic contact dermatitis, the contact hypersensitivity (CHS) response to the obligate sensitizer 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene. In this study, we investigated the cellular and molecular mechanisms how CB1 receptors attenuate CHS responses to 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene. We used a conditional gene-targeting approach to identify the relative contribution of CB1 receptors on epidermal KCs for the control of CHS responses. To determine the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms that regulate inflammatory responses in the effector phase of CHS, we performed further investigations on inflamed ear tissue and primary KC cultures using morphologic, molecular, and immunologic methods. Mice with a KC-specific deletion of CB1 receptors developed increased and prolonged CHS responses.
Attenuation of allergic contact dermatitis through the endocannabinoid system.
Allergic contact dermatitis affects about 5% of men and 11% of women in industrialized countries and is one of the leading causes for occupational diseases. In an animal model for cutaneous contact hypersensitivity, we show that mice lacking both known cannabinoid receptors display exacerbated allergic inflammation. In contrast, fatty acid amide hydrolase-deficient mice, which have increased levels of the endocannabinoid anandamide, displayed reduced allergic responses in the skin.
Topical cannabinoid agonists. An effective new possibility for treating chronic pruritus
Chronic, therapy-resistant pruritus often fails to respond to standard measures so new therapeutic approaches are needed. Recently, the expression of cannabinoid receptors on cutaneous sensory nerve fibers was described, so cannabinoid agonists seem a rational therapeutic option for pruritus.
In an open application observation 22 patients with prurigo, lichen simplex and pruritus applied an emollient cream containing N-palmitoyl ethanolamine (PEA).
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